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What is tracheotomy

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Author : Joe Wong
Update time : 2021-05-18 14:59:11
What is tracheotomy

Some patients in the ICU may have varying degrees of dysfunction of consciousness, respiratory function, coughing, sputum, or swallowing for a long time. Therefore, tracheotomy is currently one of the most common treatments in ICU. Many patients and their family members do not know much about tracheotomy and are afraid of them. Some family members are even worried that the patient will not be able to speak from now on. In fact, tracheotomy is a standard treatment for patients who need to use artificial methods to maintain airway patency and sputum drainage for a long time. Tracheotomy refers to the process of incising or puncturing the tracheal wall layer by layer from the neck approach (usually between the 2-4 tracheal rings below the laryngeal knot) and then inserting the tracheostomy tube. Since the operation is performed below the glottis, it will not damage the anatomy of the glottis. If the patient's condition improves, the tracheal tube can be pulled out to seal the incision and the speaking will be resumed. In addition, some patients who need to wear a tracheostomy tube for a long time can also communicate with people through a special tube device. The tracheostomy is not difficult and can usually be done in the ICU ward. However, because the patients undergoing the operation are often in poor basic conditions, the doctor should conduct detailed operations with the patient or family before considering the tracheotomy. Before talking, inform the reason of the operation and the related complications that may occur after the operation. The family members must fully understand the situation and sign the informed consent for the operation.

Adaptations that require tracheotomy in ICU mainly include:

1. The patients themselves cannot effectively protect airway patency and sputum drainage due to various reasons;

2. Respiratory failure requires artificial respiration support and the possibility of respiratory function recovery in a short time is small. Complications of tracheotomy include: postoperative bleeding, tube displacement or prolapse, incision infection, subcutaneous emphysema, subglottic granulation hyperplasia and stenosis, etc. After the tracheal tube is inserted, the gas breathed by the patient is mainly inhaled and exhaled through the tracheal tube, which helps to reduce breathing work and functional exercise.